Review: Noom Diet

Noom Diet ReviewAnyone who has been online or who has watched TV in any capacity over the last couple of years has most certainly heard of the Noom Diet.  This weight loss program has used intensive marketing to reach people and share its promised psychology-based approach to improving eating habits.

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Review: The Fast Food Diet

The Fast Food Diet ReviewThe Fast Food Diet is a book written by Stephen Sinatra, MD, a cardiologist.  The premise behind the book is that it is possible to lose weight without having to stop going through the drive-thru or devote a lot of your time to preparing meals and snacks from scratch. The forward was written by Dr. Barry Sears, author of the Zone Diet.

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Hallelujah Diet

Hallelujah Diet

The Hallelujah Diet is an extreme form of weight loss that claims to be a Holy Grail eating strategy.  This, according to the creators of the diet, Reverend George Malkmus and his wife, Rhonda.  They developed this diet based on biblical influence and inspiration.

What Is the Hallelujah Diet?

The Hallelujah Diet is 85 percent raw and unprocessed plant-based food consumption, that also includes 15 percent cooked plant-based foods.  Malkmus and his wife created this eating strategy after having changed his entire diet to include only raw fruits, vegetables and carrot juice.  He feels that this change saved his life 35 years ago following a cancer diagnosis.

Note: DietReviewing.com does not endorse, recommend or otherwise condone using this eating strategy following a cancer diagnosis or to treat or prevent any health or medical condition, disease or illness.  Speak with your doctor for medical advice regarding your health.

According to Malkmus, the reason that he believes his Hallelujah Diet worked for him was that meat will “get trapped” in the digestive system, holding back elimination and leading to illness and toxicity.  Though he does not cite any reputable body of research to support this claim, it is the cornerstone of this eating strategy.  As a result, following this diet means eating only plant-based foods, primarily raw, to obtain the necessary nutrition for restoring damaged cells and achieving long-lasting health.

What Is on and off this Eating Strategy

The majority of the foods consumed on the Hallelujah Diet are raw.  These include fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, grains, fats, oils, seasonings and dairy alternative products. Permitted beverages include re-mineralized distilled water, and freshly extracted vegetable juices.

The cooked portion of the diet allows baked sweet potatoes, whole grains, whole grain pasta, steamed vegetables, baked or steamed squash, and beans.

No meat, dairy or eggs can be consumed while following the Hallelujah Diet.  Alcohol is also not permitted. Soy, processed fruits and vegetables, certain seeds and nuts, refined grains, certain seasonings, oils, soups and sweets must also be avoided.

Unsustainable Healthy Eating for Many Dieters

This diet may claim to be a key to healthy eating, but it represents a radical change in the way most people eat. For most people, changes this large are not sustainable.  They will last for several weeks at the most, before individuals start to break away from such tight restrictions and return to older eating patterns and habits.

Review: The Fast Metabolism Diet

Review: The Fast Metabolism Diet

The Fast Metabolism Diet is based on a book by Haylie Pomroy, which first hit the shelves in 2013. Though it didn’t stand out from among the hundreds of other books for many years, it suddenly found in the spotlight when Angela Basset gave it her praise. Basset gave the diet the credit for her ongoing fitness at age 60.

Pomroy has a Bachelor of Science Degree from Colorado State University. That said, she is not a registered dietitian or a practicing nutritionist. Still, The Fast Metabolism Diet has built some positive reviews over the years.

What is The Fast Metabolism Diet?

The Fast Metabolism Diet isn’t a long-term plan. Instead, it is a 28-day strategy that involves three different phases. The claim is that by using these phases each week, a dieter will speed up his or her metabolism. The idea is to rotate among high-carb, high-protein and high-fat meals each week.

The Fast Metabolism places a restriction on wheat (except natural yeast or sprouted wheat), corn, soy, dairy, caffeine, refined sugar, dried fruit, alcohol and fruit juice. It also restricts nitrates, which are found in processed and cured meats.

How to Follow the Fast Metabolism Diet

Aside from the food restrictions, Fast Metabolism Diet followers must eat within a half hour of waking, and again every three to four hours throughout the day. This should work out to five meals per day. Dieters are also required to drink lots of water. To find out how much they need to drink, dieters must divide their weight in pounds in half, then drink that many ounces of water each day. Therefore, a 140 pound woman would be required to drink 70 ounces of water.

To follow the Fast Metabolism Diet, there are also optional supplements available. They are recommended for “maximum metabolism impact” over the 28 day length of the diet. Aside from that, dieters must also follow the phases of the diet. These phases dictate the way in which macronutrients are balanced in every meal throughout the day. Portion sizes depend on the starting weight of the individual and how many pounds he or she must lose.

The Fast Metabolism Diet Phases

  • Phase 1 – Days 1 and 2 of each week – No fat, high carbohydrates, moderate protein.
  • Phase 2 – Days 3 and 4 of each week – Low fat, high protein, low carbohydrate.
  • Phase 3 – Days 5, 6 and 7 of each week – High Fat, moderate carbohydrates, moderate protein.

Will You Still Benefit from the Strongest Diet Pills?

Many people were already considering the use of some of the strongest diet pills they could find from a quality manufacturer when they came across the Fat Metabolism Diet.  This begs the question: if you follow this diet, will those diet pills still benefit you?

The answer is quite an individual one.  Some people may find that it makes this rather restrictive and continually shifting diet easier to follow, particularly when the supplements being considered provide a bit of extra energy.  Others find that the benefits aren’t just a matter of helping while in the 3 phases, but also for establishing healthy habits to be maintained over the long term.  This could make it simpler to set those habits so that they will become second nature for healthy weight control over years to come.

The key isn’t just in finding the ones with the strongest ingredients – though that can help, when done right.  It is also a matter of choosing a product from an established, well-reputed company that manufactures its products in US facilities. These products should contain only clinically researched ingredients and their benefits should provide you with the support you need to overcome your top challenges.

Low Carb Diets

Low Carb Diets

Dr G Weight Loss Reviews

Dr G Weight Loss Reviews

Dr G weight loss reviews are few and far between unless you’re looking at the testimonials posted directly on the official website.  This can make it rather challenging to understand the true benefits and drawbacks real customers are experiencing.

Allow this description to provide you some of the Dr G weight loss reviews information you’ve been seeking.

Basics to Learn from Dr G Weight Loss Reviews

On the most basic level, Dr G weight loss reviews should provide you with an overall concept of what to expect from this strategy.  Essentially, the program is advertised as being “easy, individualized” as well as “physician supervised”. It is meant to be appropriate regardless of the amount of weight you want to lose and has been around for about two decades.  During that time, tens of thousands of people have been customers.

This is an interesting fact, as the program advertises that it has helped more than 100,000 people and yet Dr G weight loss reviews are few and far between.  The idea behind using this strategy is to achieve a faster metabolism, control the appetite and help with weight loss.

Who is Dr G?

The doctor behind the program described in Dr G weight loss reviews is Dr. Charles Goldsmith.  His specialty is not, in fact, in obesity, weight management, nutrition, or even digestion.  Instead, he is an OB/GYN and has been practicing for more than 30 years.  He graduated from Temple University in 1973 before earning his medical degree in Philadelphia from Thomas Jefferson University. His board certification is in obstetrics and gynecology.

The reason his career changed directions toward weight management to the point that he came up with the Dr G weight loss program was that he found that many of his patients were struggling with their weight and would regularly ask him for advice. He looked into some of the major weight programs available at the time and was unimpressed, deciding to form his own which would involve medical supervision.  He now has clinics in Delaware, Florida, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, in addition to two offices outside the United States.

Program Locations

There are nearly 20 locations, many of which have a small number of Dr G weight loss reviews on sites such as Yelp! Though the numbers are slim, the customers have seemed, for the most part, to be satisfied with the program.

The program involves clinic staff support as well as the purchase of products including cleanse kits which are to be used over several days, protein shakes and protein bars.  It’s unclear as to how this strategy stands out from many other meal replacement and cleanse-based strategies without solid published researched to support their use and safety claims.

Review: The Traditional Asian Diet

Review: The Traditional Asian Diet

The Traditional Asian Diet is a lifestyle-based eating strategy based mainly on eating plant-based foods as is popular in several Asian countries. That massive continent is home for many countries, each of which boasts its own rich cultures and eating traditions. For this particular diet, there is a main focus on Japanese and certain Chinese diets.

Why Are Forms of the Traditional Asian Diet Praised?

The reason is that those cultures typically see strong health and considerable longevity throughout their populations. That said, they also typically consume about 25 percent more calories than the average American and yet still maintain leaner bodies on the whole. When eating the traditional Asian Diet as a part of a lifestyle, obesity is quite rare. That said, it has become commonplace among people who follow the traditional western and American diet high in processed foods.

How to Eat According to These Type of Diets

The diet involves eating a lot of rice as well as vegetables which have typically been cooked. Also included in the diet are a number of pulses, particularly soy-based foods. Soy provides one of the primary protein sources, to the point that it is even more commonplace than animal-based protein sources. Sweets and red meat are considered to be indulgences to be enjoyed on a rare occasion, not a regular basis.

Protein, Healthy Fats, Fruits and Veggies

In following with the Japanese tradition, seafood is also a regular protein source. As is the case in many parts of China, rice wine is often used in cooking, but this is still used only in moderation as alcohol is not meant to be a regular component of the lifestyle.

The Traditional Asian Diet leans on the eastern food pyramid. That food pyramid is extremely different from the one with which the western world is familiar. Instead, meat is at the very top of the Asian pyramid because it is eaten only occasionally and in small amounts. Poultry is eaten more, while eggs are consumed much more frequently. Vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts and legumes are eaten quite a bit on this diet.

Lots of Rice

That said, the food eaten the most is rice, followed by certain millets and corn. The preferred type of rice when following this diet is white rice, not brown unpolished rice. The reason is that rice bran can be difficult to digest and it is believed to slow the metabolism.

High in Carbs

While the Traditional Asian Diet may be high in carbohydrates, the foods are consumed in their healthy, natural forms, meaning that they don’t cause people who eat them to become overweight or obese. These foods are not processed and don’t contain unhealthy additives. Their nutrient density helps to keep weight and health more naturally under control.

At the same time, there isn’t a great deal of scientific evidence to support adopting this diet outside of living within the actual culture that created it. As there isn’t any food tracking, specific restrictions or calorie counting, it can be difficult to adopt in a natural way that reflects the way the diet is consumed in the Asian countries on which the diet was based.

Interesting Strategies for Following a Traditional Asian Diet

To follow a traditional Asian diet in general, there are certain strategies that you can add to your habits. Indeed, every eating habit in Asia is unique to its region, but there are some points that most have in common

Avoid Cold Drinks with Meals

In the United States, it is extremely commonplace to have a cold beverage along with your meal. This can include anything from a cold glass of water to milk, soda, white wine, beer, or other drinks.  That said, this is not the habit of people following a traditional Asian Diet. Many people believe that changing this habit is a healthy move.  Reducing the intake of fluids with meals helps to avoid watering down your digestive enzymes and acids which are critical to ideal nutrient absorption.

That said, room temperature or, more commonly, warm beverages such as green tea help to support digestive enzymatic activity.  This helps you to stay hydrated and potentially improve your digestion at the same time.  That said, enjoy your green tea a half hour before or after eating, not during your meal, according to a typical traditional Asian diet.

Make Soup a Regular Meal

Soup is a hydrating food that helps to fill you up without packing yourself with calories. Many traditional Asian diet habits include soup with many if not most meals. They should be a broth-based, not cream-based soup. Like green tea, many of these meals support the digestive process.

Use Chopsticks and Small Plates

Serving the dishes that make up your meals on small plates is a fantastic way to eat smaller portions.  Choose one smaller plate for your whole meal or use very small plates to contain your portion of each part of the meal. Chopsticks are also a great way to eat because they help to ensure you take a reasonable sized bite instead of shoveling huge amounts into your mouth. This slows down the pace of your eating and gives your stomach the chance to register to your brain that it’s full before you overeat.

Review: Dukan Diet

Review: Dukan Diet

The Dukan Diet is a weight loss strategy based on increased protein consumption as well as following four stages of food and lifestyle changes. It became exceptionally popular when many A-list celebrities started following it, including Kate Middleton when she was preparing for her wedding to Prince William.

What Does the Dukan Diet Involve?

When following the Dukan Diet, there are certain foods that are allowed at various times. It can be quite restrictive, but the claim is that during the first two to seven days, someone who follows it very closely will lose between 4.4 and 6.6 pounds. That number is based on the diet’s own claims and dieter feedback but has not been backed by scientific study.

The diet itself is laid out in an official book, which has sold well over 7 million copies. Moreover, there is also an official website which offers dieters additional support. By repeating the strategy and stages of the Dukan Diet, the idea is that a dieter will be able to keep up a rate of 2 to 4 pounds of weight loss each week. A central component of this diet also requires you to cut back on your carbohydrates, particularly in the earlier stages.

Flexibility in Your Strategy

The company behind the diet allows dieters to either choose to make their own foods based on the rules, to purchase pre-packaged foods designed to make it easier to stay within the restrictions, or to do both. That said, there is no requirement that dieters purchase the pre-packaged foods. There is a preference for learning to cook your own foods for the various phases, while using the packaged options more to keep up with the diet when you’re too busy to make your own meals.

What Are the Dukan Diet Phases?

The phases of the Dukan Diet include:

Phase 1 – Attack

During this phase, you can eat as much protein as you want, choosing from 68 possible animal-based protein sources. The book claims this phase of the diet will boost the rate of weight loss while decreasing the amount of water held by the body’s tissues. For this phase, dieters will also need to drink between 6 and 8 cups of water per day and take 1.5 tablespoons of fiber – preferably oat bran fiber – to help reduce calorie absorption and shrink the appetite. This phase lasts for about a week (though this changes depending on the goal weight) and involves the introduction of exercise, usually in the morning.

Phase 2 – Cruise

Throughout this phase, the dieter is supposed to lose one pound per three days. There is still a requirement for the same types of protein, but some veggies become allowed. Dieters can select from 32 different options. There are still no fatty veggies or starchy ones allowed. This phase requires the same amount of water, with 2 tablespoons of oat bran fiber each day.

Phase 3 – Consolidation

This is the phase that works to keep the lost weight off, offering additional dieting tips. In addition to being able to eat the same foods as the previous two phases, some new foods are also allowed, such as fruit, cheese, some starchy foods and bread. During this phase, you can have 2 meals per week that can deviate from the restrictions of the phase. Every time you lose a pound, this phase becomes 5 days longer. This is often the longest phase.

Phase 4 – Stabilization

In this phase, you can eat however you want for 6 days each week, provided you follow the portion recommendations. Once per week, you need to eat according to the Attack phase. This is the phase that is maintained for the rest of the dieter’s life in order to keep up long term results.

Does Science Back the Dukan Diet?

As of the writing of this review, there hasn’t been much quality research conducted on the Dukan Diet.  That said, there have been a few limited preliminary studies.  One study conducted in Poland tracked women following that eating strategy. It showed that they ate around 1,000 calories per day and 100 grams of protein per day.  In 8 to 10 weeks, they lost an average of 33 pounds.

Other small studies have also shown that diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates can bring about rapid weight loss over the short term.

Does the Weight Loss from the Dukan Diet Last?

There haven’t been any long-term, reputable studies on the safety or lasting effects of the Dukan Diet.  That said, this type of eating style is often considered to be controversial due to the high protein intake it requires.  This is particularly true when considering bone health and the kidneys. People with healthy kidneys likely shouldn’t be concerned. That said, individuals prone to kidney stones could experience a worsening of their risk and their symptoms with this type of diet.

It is unlikely that most people would be able to keep up this type of eating strategy over the long term. Therefore, there is a risk of rebounding weight.

Review: Mayo Clinic diet

Review: Mayo Clinic diet

The Mayo Clinic Diet is a lifestyle strategy designed to help to remove the complexity involved in trying to lose weight in a healthy way. While healthy weight loss may sound as though it’s a pretty straightforward effort, once you get started, the amount of information available can easily become overwhelming. From food groups to macronutrients and from cardio to strength training, there are many details to consider.

The goal of this strategy is to make it easier for people to live a healthy lifestyle.  The Mayo Clinic Diet is meant to provide people with confidence in knowing that the recommendations are made from experts at a reputable medical and health organization.  Through this strategy, people can avoid fads and crash diets while improving the relationship they have with what they eat and with their regular activity level.

Why Was the Mayo Clinic Diet Developed?

Interestingly, while the Mayo Clinic Diet was designed to get right to the heart of the matter and provide people with directions to lose weight while living a healthy lifestyle, the timing of the creation of the diet was not necessarily chosen by the organization. Instead, there were so many unofficial versions of the diet already circulating under that name, they decided it was time to create a legitimate, official one that people could trust.

What is the Mayo Clinic?

The Mayo Clinic, the prestigious Minnesota-based organization.  It is a not-for-profit organization focused on bringing health education, research and clinical practice together.  It currently employs over 4,500 physicians and scientists in addition to 58,400 allied health staff and admin staff.

Publishing a Book for Common Sense Recommendations

The organization created a diet and published a book under its name in order to provide a common sense, practical and healthy way to eat nutritiously, get in shape and lose weight. It is highly user friendly and features a range of tips, recipes, pictures, graphics and additional support information to simplify weight management.

Replacing a Fad Diet with an Official Weight Management Strategy

According to the diet’s medical editor, Donald Hensrud, MD, the fad diet bearing the Mayo Clinic’s name had been circulating for years and they decided it was time to put things right with an actual healthy weight loss plan that people can actually use.

The unofficial, phony version of the diet involves consuming a low-carb, high-fat eating strategy. It promises that following this and eating grapefruit, which it claims to have nearly miraculous powers for fat burning, will skyrocket weight loss. The plan is followed for twelve days before there are two days off and then back on again. This is repeated ten times for what the diet claims will bring 50 to 55 pounds of weight loss.

On the other hand, the legitimate Mayo Clinic Diet provides a medically reviewed, scientifically sound long term weight loss strategy. The focus on building healthy eating and fitness habits that will be maintained for a lifetime in order to provide weight management as a lifestyle and not just over the short term. The goal isn’t to choose certain foods or food groups as being better or worse than others. Instead, it promotes overall wellness and understand how to incorporate health into a real person’s lifestyle.

What does the Mayo Clinic Diet Recommend?

It has a nutrition component, a fitness component as well as a preventive medicine component. That way, it’s not just focusing on getting the pounds off. Certainly, that’s a factor, but the aim is to do so healthfully so that it helps with overall health. Reducing weight in a healthy way is an important path to preventing many types of chronic disease and illness. This diet recommends eating according to the Mayo Clinic’s Healthy Weight Pyramid, boosting physical activity, keeping up healthy lifestyle habits, defining and achieving realistic goals and keeping up motivation levels.

Overall, the Mayo Clinic Diet is based on the foundation recommendations that are already being made by doctors and other health experts.  It uses government data and solid research to back up its recommendations.  That said, what makes it different is that it applies this data in a practical way. It provides people with ways they can use that information in their real life.

Over time, people following this strategy are meant to regularly improve their choices for nutrition, exercise and overall wellness.

Review: The MIND Diet

Review: The MIND Diet

The MIND Diet is a combination of two proven and popular diets: Mediterranean Diet and DASH.  It was designed to focus specifically on the foods from those eating strategies that are known to support brain health. Initial research into this form of dieting suggests that it could have the potential to support brain wellness and reduce the risk of mental decline.

As there have yet to be any methods of fully preventing or reversing dementia or Alzheimer’s, the hope is to be able to use MIND Diet strategies to make as big of a difference based on lifestyle as possible.

Does the MIND Diet Work?

The idea behind the MIND Diet is to eat foods such as nuts, berries, and leafy greens to reduce a person’s risk of developing a progressive brain disorder. The letters in the name of this eating strategy stand for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay.  It was first developed by Rush University Medical Center nutritional epidemiologist Martha Clare Morris.

The development of the MIND Diet was funded by the National Institute on Aging.  The first published version of this eating strategy was in February 2015. The research determined that eating in this way decreased the risk of Alzheimer’s development by about 35 percent among people who followed it moderately well.  That said, among those who followed it quite rigorously, there as a 53 percent drop in Alzheimer’s risk.

More research is needed to know precisely what long-term impact following the MIND Diet can have.  Still, the same research team has done more study into this eating plan and has found that its impact on preventing cognitive decline is better than both the DASH and Mediterranean Diets on their own.

Not a Dieting Plan Specifically for Weight Loss

Though the MIND Diet is considered to be very healthy, it is not necessarily a plan for weight reduction.  That said, many people who have followed this eating program have found that their weight has been easier to manage. Its focus on whole grains, vegetables – particularly dark green ones – nuts, beans, lean proteins, healthy fats such as olive oil, and other nutrient dense foods helps to avoid empty calories and foods that are less satisfying. In fact, it recommends avoiding highly sugary and processed fatty foods.

Before switching to the MIND Diet, it’s a good idea to speak with your doctor. This can help you to know that it will be appropriate for you and will assist you in finding the right guidance to follow to do it properly, particularly at the start as you familiarize yourself with it.

Review: Eco-Atkins Diet

Review: Eco-Atkins Diet

The Eco-Atkins Diet is a weight loss strategy that was developed to provide vegetarians and vegans with an option that is meant to work as an alternative to the Atkins Diet. Like the meat-focused Atkins Diet, Eco-Atkins is also centered around a low carb, high protein eating strategy.

High Protein, No Meat

This vegetarian version of the Atkins Diet was first developed by researchers in Toronto, Canada, at St. Michael’s Hospital. Their goal had been to see whether or not a high protein vegetarian diet could bring about a reduction of both body weight and bad (LDL) cholesterol.

The research team came up with the Eco-Atkins Diet in order to respect the same protein to carb ratio as the original diet, while replacing the animal protein – which was high in fat – with a vegetable protein that is typically lower in fat. This protein was mainly in the form of gluten and soy.

What the Research Said

The results of the study were published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, when it found that the diet brought about an average of 8.8 pounds in the first four weeks, improved blood pressure, triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Bad cholesterol improved by 0.6 percent, which was significant, particularly for that amount of time.

How to Follow the Eco-Atkins Diet

The Eco-Atkins Diet requires dieters to eat foods that are made up mostly of protein, healthy fats and carbs from high fiber vegetables. Around 30 percent of the daily calorie intake comes from plant proteins, about 45 percent comes from vegetable oils, and another 25 percent from carbohydrates. Foods most commonly consumed on this diet include healthy fats, beans, soy foods, seeds, nuts, fruits, no-starch gluten products, vegetables and fruits.

As meat is excluded from Eco-Atkins, protein sources are typically soy beverages, gluten, soy burgers, tofu, and vegetarian alternative versions such as breakfast links, bacon and deli slices. Other sources include nuts, certain cereals and vegetables. There is an emphasis placed on certain vegetables over others, with a preference for viscous veggies such as eggplant, okra and other low starch options.

Fats Preferred for the Eco-Atkins Diet

The good fats preferred in this diet include olive oil, canola oil, nuts and avocado. Carbs are meant to come exclusively from cereals, vegetables and fruits. A small amount of barley and oats are permitted. However, enriched white flour based foods and sugary foods were banned, such as white rice, white bread, potatoes, and the majority of baked products such as cakes, muffins and cookies.

Despite the fact that following Eco Atkins Diet strategies does help some dieters to improve their overall nutrition, the improvements in this and in weight loss were not all that much better than other nutritionally balanced weight loss diet plans. It is primarily the cholesterol improving benefits of this diet that makes it stand out from other balanced vegan or vegetarian diets.

Which Atkins Version is Better?

A former president of the American Heart Association, University of Denver professor Robert Eckel, MD, calls both the Eco-Atkins Diet and the Atkins Diet too restrictive for the majority of people to continue following over the long term. That said, between the two, it was the vegan and vegetarian version that was labeled as better by Dr. Eckel.

Still, whether or not the Eco-Atkins Diet is for you isn’t just a matter of whether or not it is better than the original eating strategy.  There are many factors to consider as you decide if you should give this method a try.  It is a very restrictive diet and would be even tougher for someone who is not already used to a vegetarian lifestyle.

For many people, that means that the change will be only temporary as most people find it challenging to keep up a highly restrictive lifestyle change over the long term.  This risks not only dropping this healthy lifestyle but also returning to an old one that caused the weight to be gained in the first place.  Also, after feeling as though a diet such as this one has failed, it can be more difficult to start a new strategy.  The disappointment and feeling of failure can become a barrier instead of a motivation.

Beyond that, the Eco-Atkins Diet can also prove challenging to individuals who don’t have a great deal of experience in nutrition and eating a balanced diet without any meat.  This can cause a spectrum of potential nutrition problems and related symptoms.